Sunday, January 12, 2020

Karl Marx Essay

Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, according to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a fundamental process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the means of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers. Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, according to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a fundamental process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the means of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers. Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, according to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a fundamental process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by  who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the means of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers. Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, according to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a fundamental process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the means of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers. Karl Marx did not believe in god. He was well known for his ideas about alienation. He believed everyone was born with a creative spirit, i.e. species being. Conflict is to fight or to battle, Karl Marx was the founder of conflict theory, according to sources conflict theory argues that the competition of groups and individuals for power and wealth is a fundamental process shaping the social structure. Conflict is manifested through Marx by who gets what and why, Marx argued that the labor market was shaped by class conflict. The capitalist class, which owned the means of production, promoted division of labor to maximize their profits and to disempowered workers. In sociology the word culture means the totality of learned, socially transmitted knowledge. It can be defined as the ways of thinking, the ways of acting and material objects that together shape a persons way of life. Material culture refers to physical culture artifacts, i.e. things that you can touch, cars, handbags and clothes. Non-material culture refers to artifact that exists in a culture, e.g. norms, values, religion rules,  moral language and knowledge. In sociology this is referred to several processes that a culture uses to shape its member’s members thoughts, feeling and behaviors. Abortion is considered part of non-material culture because it is an artifact that exists in cultures its something that can’t be touch. Many religions view abortion as a sin due to the fact that abortion is the termination of an early pregnancy by various methods; religions view it as the killing of a life. Others just view it as moral issues despise the legality of abortion. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus from the uterus. It can occur in two ways purposely which is the term abortion refers to or it can occur unexpectedly, which is considered a miscarriage. It is done in two ways medically in a clinic or with pills. Abortion falls into values and religion rules because many people believe it is something that shouldn’t be done because who are we to take a life away, and as I previously stated others view it as murder because a fetus is consider a life from the moment it is conceived. According to Julie Cline in the article â€Å"Teen Abortion† from the Chicago Tribute, the controversy over abortion is incredible still until this day; people against abortion are trying there best to change the fact that abortion is legal. But according to Cline others believes abortion has its benefits. Studies show teen pregnancy has gone up in the last few years and that more than 300,000 teens receive abortions, that is equal to 1/3 of the abortions performed yearly. This article states abortion should stay legal because it keeps unwanted children from coming into this world and teens from ruining their futures.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Analyze The Topic Of Motivation Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2906 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The main task of a successful manager in the working environment is to get things done through the proper organization of employees interaction. To make it happen the manager ought to motivate the staff. But its much easier to say it than to implement. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Analyze The Topic Of Motivation Business Essay" essay for you Create order The issue of Motivation is really difficult topic both from practical and theoretical sides. It appears that despite the huge development of business psychology, the nature of motivation is still not clearly understood. Still many employees all over the world are facing inner conflicts trying to make themselves do the work which they dont want to do. Many employers trying to figure out how they can raise the effectiveness and efficiency of their teams. Nevertheless the problem remains. Moreover, the issue of poor motivation leads us to another troubles such as: Bad inner climate in the organization Low performance Conflicts in the team Increased turnover Additional expenses for motivation and team-building trainings Etc. Definitely these points altogether can make the life of any organization significantly more difficult, especially considering the current difficult economical situation. Thats why its essential to find a proper solution for this case. To under stand how motivation works, we need to figure out the human nature. Some aspects of the human nature are obvious, the other lies deep inside its core structure. And its important to always remember it on the long road of understanding the concept of effective motivation. During the observation of the revealed problem we will have to cover some of the relevant areas of psychology. Motivation has some kind of a riddle inside as its not directly linked to money or promotion. It has nothing to do with outer environment. What is really important in this case is inner motives. 1.2 Aim The primary aim of this work is to analyze the topic of motivation, observe the most important psychological factors which have an influence on employees raising or decreasing the level of motivation, and offer perspective approach of managing the motivation through creating healthy relations between managers and employees. We will also focus on different tools and instruments using which we can manage this issue as practical side is really important in this research. 1.3 Structure After the introduction we will cover the part which is dedicated to the role of psychology regarding the topic of motivation and afterwards we will observe some of the most significant psychological factors which have direct affection on the employees performance. Finally, we will summarize the most important points of this work and review them in the conclusion. The role of psychology in corporate interpersonal relations Much of motivational problems are coming from imbalanced relations in team (especially in interaction of employees and the management). Usually specialists are trying to find the roots of the poor motivation in outer factors such as salary, unsatisfying working environment and an absence of expected promotion. It appears that this approach doesnt work effectively as the problem remains to be the same both for small and for big business (despite the level of offered to empl oyees salary), both for employees who recently got promoted and for those who stocked in their career development and finally its also still actual for the companies which have lots of different HR awards for creating a perfect working condition for the staff. Consequently, we may assume that the answer lies somewhere else. In this part of the work we will observe various models and concepts of motivation systems and later we will try to evaluate and suggest some critical points on which we could base new construct of modern motivation approach. We can define motivation as the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995) and also as an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994). It is possible to define motivation as attraction to the goal and inner readiness to undertake something to achieve it. The need to understand factors which motivate and inspire employees and moreover what potentially could employers do to increase th e level of motivation, has been the primary aim of research by many scientists and still this topic has high relevance and many uncovered questions inside. There are many different points of view and models of motivation structure which were discovered by psychologists and business coaches. Now we will observe some of them. Scientific Model The concept of scientific management considers the staff as an input to the production of goods/services. This idea is based on training and development of employees instead of giving them an opportunity to choose their own goals, training methods and tasks, and the main objective is to perform the work according to the plan and developed strategy. Significant contribution to this approach was brought by Frederick Taylor. Taylor analyzed human behavior from the scientific point of view with the machine model considering people as an equivalent of mechanism. After detailed analysis of the job process, employees were trained to do only wha t was required for required result. In some sense, the main aim was to separate human variability from the working process. Taylors concept was successful and really increased production and profitability. Nevertheless, Taylors approach considered employees as machines and faced strong resistance from workers who saw this process as dehumanization. Moreover this approach also met group resistance because nobody likes to be closely monitored during the whole period of working time as it raises additional stress and frustration. Behavioral approach This approach puts emphasis on factors which motivate employees and aimed at identification and account for the influences that motivate staff. The roots of this concept are beginning from Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs theory which considered human basic needs in the form of a hierarchy, being ranged from lowest to the highest. Maslow was inclined to think that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the higher level needs a nd since one particular set of needs is satisfied, that kind of needs is not a motivator anymore. The needs which Maslow included in his concept are the following: Physiological needs Safety or Security Social Needs Esteem Self actualization If we take a look at Maslows hierarchy of needs, well easily see that when each group of needs is satisfied, higher need becomes primal. Here also hides another interesting point when a need is satisfied, it stops being motivating anymore. The breaking point of Abraham Maslows theory is to concentrate on evaluating the level of hierarchy the person currently has and focus on the goal of satisfying that persons needs and the higher needs. This theory of needs has been widely developed and accepted by managers all around the world. Despite the fact that this theory is easy to be practically implemented and generally simple to understand, it still doesnt have solid practical evidence of its effectiveness and moreov er there is no system to measure the efficiency of the theory after implementation. Vrooms Expectancy Theory The following concept claims that motivation stands on core values and beliefs of people and tests motives through the idea of what will happen according to the individuals expectations. It is organized around the idea that employees activity will lead to performance and consequently performance will bring us to appraisal and rewards. This theory claims that people can be motivated if they truly believe that there is a positive connection between the efforts which employees put in and their performance which afterwards leads to rewards. Finally, the reward creates an opportunity to satisfy a significant need and this desire is solid enough to make the efforts seem worthy. Vrooms theory also states that the advantage of employees motivation will depend on the structure to which they inclined to expect the results to contribute towards their needs or aims and locate th at motivation as a result of a cautious and rational calculation(Vroom, 1964). Basically, Vroom claims that the equation which explains main concept of his theory Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence possibly might be used to predict if a particular reward will be considered as a solid enough motivator for an employee or not. Porter-Lawler Expectancy theory Basically, this theory is based on the same structure as Vrooms theory and suggests that core levels of motivation are stood more on the value that employees place on the reward.  Real performance in a working process is basically organized by the invested effort and is usually affected by the employees ability to qualified performance and the perception of what the required task is all about. Porter-Lawler theory claims that performance is the most significant factor that leads us to inner and outer-oriented rewards which with the equity of employee leads to overall satisfaction. This theory demonstr ates the importance of policy of avoiding discriminatory practices in the working environment and claims that it is essential for the personnel to give equal and fair treatment to the staff. Part 2 After we have observed several theories and approaches in the first part of the work, we may state that none of them are perfect and moreover we may suggest that successful manager surely needs to apply a mix of these concepts in his attempts to organize a working process in the most effective way and motivate people really efficiently. In this part we will cover various hints and tools on which a new approach relevant to the situation can be based. One of the most important points of a new generations approach is a fact that money and promotion are main motivators. Unfortunately it is not so simple, and it doesnt equal happy staff. Definitely, money will always play an important role in motivating people and certainly serious compensation plan is extremely valuable to attracting and making stat key employees. But the answer is that additional money is not the only answer and in many different situations not the best answer. It appears that non-monetary compensation is the main value which employer is able to provide to employees nowadays. It also seems logical to highlight three major areas where emphasis should be put: Treatment, Education Development and Environment. Now, lets take a more attentive look at them. Treatment If we speak about the treatment its very important for a manager to give to employees recognition and attention. When people accomplish a task it means that they have achieved something. Recognition is some kind of appreciation for the achievement. Many managers forget about giving recognition because its not so widely developed policy in todays corporate environment. Recognition works also very well when it comes from an executive management. The secret of this tool is that it shouldnt be used neither too often nor too rare. Its also essential to manage corporate events offsite as they events empower bonding which in return strengthen team spirit, which significantly enhances positive work environment. There should be always a place for some relaxing and entertaining events in a corporate lifestyle of any organization. These events significantly help to establish friendly and positive atmosphere in team and consequently raise the level of motivation and maintain required enviro nment. Holidays and Birthday parties, sports events can help bring all employees together for a happy party time. The most successful events appear to be those which affiliated with various specific themes such as cultural theme for example, really nice ideas to base contest on. Another interesting idea which can help to create a solid motivation level is giving a chance to employees to have a time off.   Effective manager should create contests that earn time off. Employees will compete with a great enthusiasm for additional one or two hours off. And moreover theyll do it as hard as they will work for usual monetary award. When people have an opportunity to get dismissals, arrivals and additional vacation days it will motivate and inspire them. Education Development Education should be provided surely because it will be considered by the employees as an important value. For instance, individual coaching can be a solid contribution to employees development. The only price here is time. When employer invests his time in employees development it means his care and pure interest in team progress through the prism of every individual. Besides that, usual training also should not be forgotten. There is no such employer who can provide too much training. There are many employers who think that employees have already been enough trained or generally the level of employees development is high enough and only one member of the team needs training. Education processes in company should be controlled by a supervisor with provided help from specific employees who are able to demonstrate a specific strength amongst the skills list. These training sessions will continually increase the effectiveness of the performance of employees and the productivity of a business. Various seminars (outside and inside) are also can be provided. Basically, these seminars are usually efficient for many people. Different seminars can be granted for some employees in a form of a prize. Then this seminar can be recreated to the rest of the people by participants and finally the whole staff can get the knowledge nearly for free. Trainings on the topic of Stress Management also can play part in a process of motivation formation.  Many different books and articles were written on this topic. These materials can be given to employees and moreover manager should encourage them to use these materials in practice. Its also great if a company has a possibility to provide a seminar inside the organization on various stress management strategies and techniques. Its also important to give a clear understanding of a career path to employees. The staff needs to know what is waiting them potentially in the nearest future from the promotion point of view, what opportunities they have for growth. This aspect plays a really significant role in the overall motivation process of employees. Effective manager should also set visible career paths in the organization. Environment Various industry studies have shown the importance of good work environment and its significant role in motivation. Its a pleasant fact that more and more employers appreciate the meaning of proper working condition. Comfort and well-organized working conditions are very important to the emotional state which employees feel regarding the environment where people work. The office should look really nice: pictures on the walls, plantsÃÆ' Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ± fresh paint and nice furniture will definitely make people feel much better about their working environment. Its essential to control if there is enough space for effective and comfortable working process or not. All desks should be ergonomic and of the proper size, chairs and sofas should be comfortable. Effective manager definitely should also care not only about outer environment but about the inner part too. Surely, there are many employees nearly in every organization who would like to use their chance to handle additional re sponsibility. Managers ought to identify who these people are and try to do best to match the most actual responsibilities to the employees strengths and wants. Conclusion Finally we have observed various motivation approaches, theories and whats even more important, practical guidelines which can be practically implemented in a process of raising motivation amongst employees and keeping it on a high level permanently. Effective managers need to figure out what motivates employees in the context of the roles they perform and understand the process, theories, and fundamental components of motivation concept. Despite the fact which theory is chosen, (or even the mix of them) interesting work and employee pay are important links to higher motivation. Various options such as job enlargement, job enrichment, promotions, monetary and especially non-monetary types of compensation should be taken into consideration. The secret key to effective motivating employees is to know what m otivates them and designing a motivation program based on those core needs. Successful leader who understands his teams hidden desires and forces which motivates people should permanently reflect and react on his activities re-developing and optimizing his approach. All listed earlier concepts should be kept in mind altogether because motivation is a personal thing for every individual. When employees realize that they are being treated equally and fairly, they will most probably do their best in work. Manager needs to keep in mind that employees have their own personal goals and system of motivation as much effective as much it meets these aims. Fair pay and comfortable humanized working conditions are surely essential for any organization as these criteria cover basic needs of every employee. Nevertheless, such inner factors as fulfillment at work and recognition shouldnt be forgotten as such type of a motivation helps to Motivating staff helps to make employees more devoted an d committed to the workplace. Through understanding of the effects of different motivation techniques, we are able to make work a really exciting, challenging and interesting experience for employees during creating a more productive, profitable and competitive business structure. It is important to create the proper environment to motivate and engage people through the lever of development, communication channels, solid training and fair and feedback given in a proper time. Its also very important for a manager to try to practically apply a skill of empathy and ask himself about the factors which motivate every person of the team individually. Knowing this and understanding factors which drives people can help figure out what sequence of moves should be taken in every particular case and situation. Understanding the motivations of others can give insight which will better help to understand hidden relations.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Vegan What I could never give up my large chick fil a...

Vegan? What I could never give up my large chick fil a milk shake or 5 guys burger! These thoughts may be floating around in your mind and if you don’t know what vegans means you may just be thinking of stoping at chick~fil~a. Basically a vegan doesnt consume any by product of animals. That includes meat, fish, diary, and poultry. Some take it a step further and don’t by products tested on animals and of course so fur or snake skins. You might think It’s a crazy way to live but once you learn how it reduces pollution, benefits your health, and helps tortured animal you may just become one your self. Being vegan also also reduces pollution in many ways. Having a vegan lifestyle will reduce the methane/ nitrous oxide. This†¦show more content†¦Now you may think well wont the lack of protein hurt my health? No it will not because you will get enough. Protein is extremely high in spinach which is great in smoothies and beans which taste amazing wrapped in lettuce. Actually studies have revealed that too much protein is very harmful for your health because it can strain you kidneys or cling as far.(Blumberg). One study that really impresses me is the one done one men with early stage prostate cancer who adapt a vegan diet may stop or even reverse the progression of the cancer. Another thing you may be wondering about is calcium. How will my bones stay strong if I dont drink my milk. They ways to get your calcium is extremely easy and delicious. Almond milk has fifty percent more calcium then milk does and a cup only has 30 calories! The public is put in the dark about the truth behind factory farming. We have images of large fields with cows grazing, pigs rolling around in mud, and chickens roam around. They have truly taking advantage of the peoples trust in labels such as â€Å"humane† and â€Å"free range†. Lets talk milk, if you take a second to think of the process to produce the amount of milk in demand. More than 9.3 million cows were used to produce milk in the united states alone. Thats 9.3 million moms being essentially raped and then after giving birth having their babyShow MoreRelatedDescription Of A Vegetarian On The Vegan Zone Essay1474 Words   |  6 PagesTOPIC: Veganism TITLE: Life in the Vegan Zone GENERAL PURPOSE: To inform SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform my audience about what it means to be a vegan THESIS: To inform my audience that veganism cannot be simply distinguished through one single characterization, it is a dietary choice, a belief, a compassion that is a catalyst for one’s self, animals and even the environment. I. INTRODUCTION i. A vegan in the U.S. saves 198 animals per year from cruelty, however, that is a very small number comparedRead MoreIs It A Vegan?1460 Words   |  6 Pagesand became a vegan. Slowly but surely, my body healed itself from the inside-out. If one was to ask me about becoming vegan before I knew what benefits it would provide, I would have laughed. I would have told that vegan that I just couldn’t give up my beloved meat, dairy, and eggs but ultimately, I did just that. The transition to Veganism became easier when I accepted the truth of the matter. All of the research I did on the lifestyle led me to the conclusion that becoming a vegan would only benefitRead MoreThe On The Vegan Society1582 Words   |  7 PagesThe Vegan Society may have come into the picture 70 years ago, consequently veganism has been around much longer. There is evidence that dates as far as 2,000 years of people choosing to avoid animal products. Veganism is an extreme form of vegetarianism, and thoug h the term was brought to life in 1944, the concept of animal free eating can be traced back to ancient Indian and eastern Mediterranean societies. Researcher have looked back as early as 500 BCE, the Greek philosopher and mathematicianRead MoreBecoming a Vegan1732 Words   |  7 Pages Becoming vegan is a personal lifestyle decision whom many people have influenced as their preferred nutritional intake and can be due to many reasons including long-term health benefits, environmental awareness, ethical concerns and religious beliefs. Many vegans are in fact health conscious and understand the benefits of following such eating patterns. The Vegan diet can be defined as the exclusion of all animal derived foods including meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products from consumptionRead MoreWhy Should Be A Vegan1097 Words   |  5 Pages Why to Become a Vegan A vegan is a person who chooses not to consume any animal byproducts, including: flesh foods, dairy, eggs, and any other products made from or tested on animals. Vegetarianism, however, which can commonly be viewed as the same thing, is far from it. Vegetarians chose only to not consume meat, but they continue to eat other animal byproducts. Most vegans believe that â€Å"Being a vegan is definitely more of a lifestyle choice and a philosophy that a diet† (Medical News Today)Read MoreTaking a Look at Veganism629 Words   |  3 Pagescampus-wide event that is used to educate students, alumni, and the general public about sustainable practices that help the environment. During the final Earthstock celebration, exhibitors from many different organizations, such as EmPower Solar and Vegan Outreach, set up tables displaying information regarding healthy lifestyle practices, alternative diets, and sustainable forms of energy. For this event, I was unfortunately assigned the task of helping other student volunteers and exhibitors checkRead MoreThe Key to Being a Vegan533 Words   |  2 Pageskey to a healthy, nutritionally sound vegan diet is variety. A healthy vegan diet consists of fruits, vegetables, leafy greens, nuts, whole grains, seeds, and legumes (vrg.org). By excluding animal bi-products, vegans also exclude the unhealthy levels of cholesterol and saturated fats that come with them (veganurbanite.com). Vegans are able to reach all the necessary nutritional requirements for a healthy body. One of the most widely asked questions to vegans is â€Å"Where do you get your protein?†Read MoreLifestyles : Vegan And Omnivore Essay1268 Words   |  6 PagesLifestyles: Vegan and Omnivore As different crazes and fads are appearing each day, we have come to expect them to simply fade away as the hype passes. However, veganism has stood the test of time in our fad society and is still increasing in popularity. Originally only thought to be a religious lifestyle, many people from different walks of life are becoming vegans. However, this poses many questions and sparks heated debates, mainly from omnivorous people who believe that veganism is againstRead MoreThe Ethics Of A Vegan Diet2702 Words   |  11 Pagesfirst things that come to a person mind when they hear the word, â€Å"vegan’, are usually protest for animal rights, salads, and a lack of protein, but the question is does he/she really know what being a vegan is all about? Veganism is the practice of abstaining away from the use of any product that uses animals, commonly associated with the cruel treatment of animals and make up thirty-one percent of the population worldwide. An ethical vegan is a form of veganism were a person does not use any productRead MoreVegan Food Presentation1944 Words   |  8 Pagesdecrease during demonstration. However, the last minutes of presentation, even question-answer part, I observed that I was still in the same level of excitement. So I believe that even though some of my classmates may not be interested in preparing vegan sushi, my passion help me to invoke sympathy from my audience. Unlike the persuasive speech, the demonstrational presentation topic must appeal the audience attention because its purpose is to teach a structure, or steps, of a task. For instance, one

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Racial Identity in The Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man...

Slavery was abolished after the Civil War, but the Negro race still was not accepted as equals into American society. To attain a better understanding of the events and struggles faced during this period, one must take a look at its literature. James Weldon Johnson does an excellent job of vividly depicting an accurate portrait of the adversities faced before the Civil Rights Movement by the black community in his novel â€Å"The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man.† One does not only read this book, but instead one takes a journey alongside a burdened mulatto man as he struggles to claim one race as his own. In Johnsons novel, the young mulatto boy is at first completely unaware of his unique circumstance, and lives life comfortably and†¦show more content†¦It is after this realization that one begins to see the young boy struggle with his racial identity. As time continues, the boy struggles with what to make of himself and his future. His musical aspirations begin to hold more weight in his decisions, but are still rather questionable. Whenever he seems to be making the steps to pave his future, he seems to continuously be redirected from his intended path. His inability to fully strive for a profession can be directly related to his inability to choose how he wants to be viewed, or rather who he wants to be viewed as, by society; he lacks the confidence to potentially make the â€Å"wrong decision.† The narrator becomes increasingly likely to make a career of music, and is greatly inspired by spirituals he hears at a church service. As he leaves to â€Å"settle down to work† (Johnson 133) , he witnesses a gruesome and cruel scene. A black man was to be hanged in town, but instead a white mob burns the black man alive. The narrator is terrified and scarred, committing to live his life as a white man. Shame is what the young boy now feels, for whether he lives as a white man, he is indeed a black man. Shame is responsible for the choice he made, because he wished not to be â€Å"identified with a people that could with impunity be treated worse than animals (Johnson 139). There is not one singleShow MoreRelatedThe Autobiography Of An Former Colored Man Essay2265 Words   |  10 Pages Identity communicates a strong characteristic that cannot naturally be expressed in terms of a social category. Social and personal identity enable the formation of an individual, reflecting the idea that social categories are assured with the bases of an individual’s self esteem. â€Å"Race and racial identity are identifiable as a social constriction culture† (Little and McGivern, 328). However, issuing social categories based on race or ethnicity links to biased regulations and practices. Johnson’sRead MorePassing in James Weldon Johnson’s The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man1105 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1912, The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man was anonymously published by James Weldon Johnson. It is the narrative of a light-skinned man wedged between two racial categories; the offspring of a white father and a black mother, The Ex-Colored man is visibly white but legally classified as black. Wedged between these two racial categories, the man c hooses to â€Å"pass† to the white society. In Passing: When People Can’t Be Who They Are, Brooke Kroeger describes â€Å"passing† as an act when â€Å"people effectivelyRead MoreAmerican Architecture : Constructing An Identity1434 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican Architecture: Constructing an Identity Throughout American history, people have been categorized based on what gender they are, and what their race is. In order to explore these ideas and come to terms with their importances many musicians, film makers, and authors have described the inner-workings of this societal construct. Indeed, both racial and female identities have been at the epicenter of many works of art throughout American culture as can be seen in: Maggie: A Girl of the StreetsRead MoreThe narrator of The Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man was born to a â€Å"colored† mother and white1200 Words   |  5 Pagesof The Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man was born to a â€Å"colored† mother and white father. This combination of his identity led him to encounter many internal and external challenges. Physically he appeared white, so he experienced being able to â€Å"pass† as both â€Å"colored† or white whenever he wished. Being able do such a thing, the narrator struggled with racial boundaries. He embodied almost every permutation, intentional or unintentional, of the experience when encountering various racial (whiteRead MoreThe Autobiography of the Ex-Colored Man: The Ability to Pass Essay1120 Words   |  5 Pages The Autobiography of the Ex-Colored Man: The Ability to Pass The Autobiography of An Ex-Colored Man depicts the narrator as a liminal character. Beginning with an oblivious knowledge of race as a child, and which racial group he belonged, to his well knowing of â€Å"white† and â€Å"black† and the ability to pass as both. On the account of liminality, the narrator is presenting himself as an outsider. Because he is both a â€Å"white† and â€Å"black† male, he does not fit in with either racial group. In the autobiographyRead MoreRacial Segregation And Jim Crow Essay2143 Words   |  9 PagesMemory and Identity in Black America since 1940†). The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man takes place during the Jim Crow era displaying the challenges and obstacles African Americans faced during this time. â€Å"Johnson devotes much of his attention to the black middle and upper classes, their constant struggles to hang onto their respective social standing, and their almost obsessive need to perform rituals of prope r behavior and decorum† (Holloway, â€Å"Jim Crow Wisdom: Memory and Identity in Black AmericaRead MoreJames Weldon Johnson s The Autobiography Of An Former Colored Man And Nella Larsen s Passing3489 Words   |  14 PagesThe Theme of Passing, Racial Prejudice and Internalized Racism in James Weldon Johnson’s The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man and Nella Larsen’s Passing The concept of racial passing refers to the occurrence in which an individual is able to transcend racial boundaries. During the Harlem Renaissance, the term â€Å"passing† meant to signify mixed race individuals who were light skinned enough to pass as white and mingle freely within white society, almost completely undetected. This was significantRead MoreThe Autobiography Of An Former Colored Man By James Weldon Johnson Essay2267 Words   |  10 PagesThe Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, James Weldon Johnson James Weldon Johnson’s novel The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man was first published in 1912. This novel is one of the highly celebrated works during the Harlem Renaissance although it was published prior in 1912. Johnson graduated from Clark Atlanta University in 1894. He was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as United States consul to Venezuela and Nicaragua. He also was highly involved in the Harlem Renaissance with hisRead MoreAutobiography Of An Ex Colored Man Essay1449 Words   |  6 PagesThe Autobiography of an Ex-Colored, Still-Clueless Man The narrator of The Autobiography grows up his whole life thinking that he is white. It is not until one fateful day in school where a teacher indirectly tells him that he is black that he finds out. This revelation, which he himself describes as â€Å"a sword-thrust† (Johnson 13), suggests a transformation, a great change, a development in the Ex-Colored Man’s racial consciousness in the future. However, as M. Giulia Fabi says, â€Å"[The ECM’s] proclaimedRead MoreThe Identity Of African Americans1758 Words   |  8 PagesRace was a primary factor used to shape the identity of African Americans which was seen through their culture. Race is portrayed through the narratives such as The life of Frederick Douglas by Frederick Douglass and the Autobiography of an Ex-colored man by James Weldon Johnson. In both the narratives, they state they are slaves due their race. First, this idea is supported in the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass when he states in the preface, â€Å"he was a slave â€Å"too (Douglass 325).

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Principles of International Taxation Law

Question: Discuss about the Principles of International Taxation Law. Answer: Introduction: Income, which is subjected to tax, is known as assessable income. A hobby is understood as the pastime or leisure activity conducted by an individual during their spare time based on recreational purpose or for pleasure. It is noteworthy to denote that the differences between a hobby and a business should be understood for tax (Long, Campbell and Kelshaw 2016). There are some key elements to be taken into the consideration such as; Has the activity being undertaken for commercial purpose, Is the original intention or objective is to make profit, Has the activity been regularly and on repeated basis undertaken, Has the activity been planned and organised in such a way that it constitute business From the above stated case study it is evident that Michael is a practicing surgeon which he considers to be stressful occupation. In order to keep himself stress free Michael undertook an interest in gardening upon his 1-hectare land. He underwent numerous courses in designing flower arranging and regularly sold flowers to his friends for flower arrangements for wedding, funerals and special occasions (Woellner et al. 2016). He generates $8000 from such hobby and alongside practices his profession of surgeon. The activities of Michael do not constitute a full time business since he engages himself in gardening activities in order to release his stress. Amount received from sale of flower does not constitute assessable income and can be classified as hobby. Michael determines his activity as a hobby and he is not subjected to any additional tax or any sort of reporting obligations (King 2016). Since Michael engages himself in such activities, which constitutes as hobby his clients, may request him to provide an ABN while making payment for the supply of flowers or any services made to business. It is noteworthy to denote that Michael does not have an ABN and his activity of selling flower is purely considered as hobby. Michael should use the Statement by a supplier form, as this will help him in avoiding the business, which he is supplying to withhold the amount from their payment to Michael. The practice adopted by Michael does not bear any resemblance to his profession of being surgeon. It is worth mentioning that Michael hobby does not constitute business and therefore he is not entitled to an ABN. Hence, Michael should provide the evidence that his activity constitute hobby or else the payer may withhold 49% of his payment (Edmonds, Holle and Hartanti 2015). Generally, during the computation of assessable income of any business, one is required to include an amount, which an individual receives, or earn during the ordinary course of running ones business (Jones and Rhoades 2013). This may consist of selling trading stock or rendering services. In usual circumstances, an individual is required to include any of the following amounts such as; Any amounts received from isolated transactions outside the ordinary course of business, if one is intended to make profit Amounts over the written down value at the time of selling any kind of depreciation items Compensation received such as workers compensation or any kind of payments received for trading stock losses, business interruptions or cancellation of agreement. Amount received as incentive payments such as cash payment for leasing of business premises Interest earned on any kind of business investments and interest towards overpayment or early payment of tax (Christie 2015). There are also incomes, which are not assessable and are excluded from assessable income. These includes; Amounts which is earned from hobby Gifts or amount which is bequeathed to an individual Prize received which does not forms the part of business Wins from betting or gabling, unless an individual is operating a betting or gambling business Any borrowed sum of money To conclude with, Michael earnings from his hobby of selling flowers does not constitute an assessable income and hence it should be excluded while computing taxable returns (Kenny 2013). Defamation can be defined as the slander consisting of use of words and statements, which creates a negative impact on the reputation of another person. In the current case study, it is found that Peter who is a well-known financial advisor sued Global news for defamation for issuing a statement against him being indulged in fraudulent investment scheme. The statement made against Peter was fallacious and resulted in personal injury to his reputation for which he was awarded $100,000 damages. Hence, the amount received on compensation damages from Global News is not assessable. Awards or settlement received from cases involving defamation is not taxable (Miller and Oats 2016). Thus, this represents that an individual is not required to disclose his compensation or damages received arising out of personal injury. Global News act of defamation constituted personal injury to Peter since this involve attack on his personal reputation. In general practice a person may be able to recover d amages arising out of defamation and slender. Thus, to collect such damages by the plaintiff, it should be proven in the court of law that the statement of slender is false which in this case Peter has rightly done. As stated under the FCT v Sydney Refractory Surgery Centre Pty Ltd [2008] FCAFC 190 the federal court of Australia turned down the appeal for treatment of tax for defamation damages awarded to a corporate taxpayer (Woellner et al. 2016). The company received a compensatory damages of $812,000 on account of defamatory damages. It was found that the commissioner wanted treat the amount in the form of income because the damages had been computed on lost profits and were to mend the hole in the profits of the corporation. It was held by the court that the treatment of tax concerning the payment should be determined concerning the cause of action in respect to compensation received. An organisations trade status was parallel to goodwill and was in the form of capital asset (Edmonds, Holle and Hartanti 2015). It was learnt that injury diminished the reputation of company along with the ability to attract customers to business. Irrespective of the nature, they were measured, any claims aris ing out of business defamation damages or injury hampering the reputation of business is considered as capital claim. Hence, according to the ordinary concepts such claims are not taxable in the form of income. The study also lays down that if an individual uses their settlement amount or damages award to earn profits after receiving it, then under such circumstances one is required to declare such income in their tax return. Thus, any sort of income made from claim amount is considered for taxation purpose (Kenny 2013). For instance, an individual on receiving the compensation payment after the conclusion of their personal injury claims uses that settlement amount to start up his own business than any such income earned would be taxable. Thus, the individual is required to declare such income in his taxation return. According to the common law, defamation and slender are considered to be the part of personal injury law as they causes damage to someones character. A person being the victim of defamation or slender may bring an action in the court of law against the guilty party (King 2016). Thus, under the current study of Peter it was found that the plaintiff suffered an injury and proved in the court of law that there was damage on his reputation or his character. The amount received for compensation damages by Peter will not constitute assessable income as no compensation and damages settlement payment or award is not considered for taxation purpose. Regardless of how such income is measured, a claim arising out of defamation damages based on injury to an individuals reputation is not assessable as income for Peter (Gullifer and Payne 2015). Post employment restraint clauses or restrictive covenants are largely used by the Australian employers so that they can protect their business interest. Such kind of trends is usually followed in employment, which are contractual in nature for professional, senior, or administrative employees. A distinctive restraint clause creates boundaries on the employee restricting the employee in any capacity as a competitor for a particular phase after leaving the employers business (Austlii.edu.au 2016). This is done so to solicit their ex-employer customers, staff and clients to not use their employers confidential trade secrets. Under the current case study it is found that Mable entered into the agreement with Excelsior for $70,000 to restrict her from setting up the business which otherwise creates competition against employer. Such kind of clauses operates in the form of Common law of doctrine consisting of restraint of trade. This represents that a restraint clause should be directed a t protecting specific interest of the employer in the form of trade secrets or business goodwill (Austlii.edu.au 2016). Thus, the court would not uphold the restraint clause restricting the competition, which unduly creates an interference with an employee,s right to sell his or her own labour. It is worth mentioning that if a restrictive covenant is related both with the existing stage of service and phase following the end of the service, the extent of the consideration received relates to the time of service is assessable under subsection 25 (1) (Ato.gov.au. 2016). As stated under the subsection 160 M (7) such section would fall either under old subsection or the new sub section 160 (m). This depends on whether the restrictive covenant was entered into before 26 June 1992 or after the period. Hence, it is assumed that the amount received by Mabel represents that there is an active asset during the phase of the entering into the covenant (Austlii.edu.au 2016). The agreement significantly lays down that the business secrets, trade relations or value of goodwill would not be shared by not setting up the business of or otherwise of similar in nature. Sub section 160 ZA (4) would be applicable in order to trim down any kind of capital gain to such an amount that the sum was c omputable in the form of ordinary income. The segment of such consideration for Mable is associated with the stage following the end of the employment will be considered for assessment under the new sub section of 160 M (6). Thus, it should be noted that neither old sub section 160 M (6) nor the old sub section 160 M (7) is applicable to that portion of the consideration entered into by Mable (Ato.gov.au. 2016). Payment received by Mabel in consideration of the restrictive covenant is considered as restrictions on her future income-earning ability and it is received in large amount, generally constituting of capital in nature and not income (Levi, Segal and Segal 2015). An amount received in the form of reimbursement for the cessation of termination or surrender of rights under the agreement or service or surrendering any pensionable rights is usually considered as capital and not ordinary income. Furthermore, it is noteworthy to denote that if an amount is paid on termination of service in consequences of the taxpayers employment it will be considered as taxable under the special rules which applicable to employment termination payments (Ato.gov.au. 2016). Mabel entered into a restrictive covenant with his employer Excelsior in the form of agreement that he will not do any kind of things, which in any way or otherwise interferes with the business of the employer for a certain period after leaving the old place of work. Such agreements entered by Mable are usually connected with the business for not taking away clients, customer or staff from Excelsior. Payments received by Mable on agreeing to enter into the restrictive covenants are considered as earnings and hence they are liable to be taxable (Ato.gov.au. 2016). This is because the extent of such consideration is associated with the stage following the end of the employment and hence it is assessable under the new subsection 160 M (6). Reference List: Ato.gov.au. (2016).Income you must declare. [online] Available at: https://www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/Income-and-deductions/Income-you-must-declare/ [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016]. Austlii.edu.au. (2016).Sadiq, Kerrie --- "Judicial and Legislative Considerations in the Taxation of Compensation Receipts: An International Comparison" [2001] JlATax 4; (2001) 4(1) Journal of Australian Taxation 98. [online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/JlATax/2001/4.html [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016]. Christie, M., 2015. Principles of Taxation Law 2015. Edmonds, M., Holle, C. and Hartanti, W., 2015. Alternative assets insights: Super funds-tax impediments to going global.Taxation in Australia,49(7), p.413. Gullifer, L. and Payne, J., 2015.Corporate finance law: principles and policy. Bloomsbury Publishing. Jha, K., 2013. Taxation Law. 2013, BA, LL. B-2009 LL. B-2011. Jones, S. and Rhoades-Catanach, S., 2013.Principles of Taxation for Business and Investment Planning, 2014 edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kenny, P.L., 2013. Aligning Income Tax Laws with Accounting Rules: A Simplified Tax System Case Study.Available at SSRN 2340888. King, A., 2016. Mid market focus: The new attribution tax regime for MITs: Part 2.Taxation in Australia,51(1), p.12. Law.ato.gov.au. (2016).TR 94/D33 (Finalised) - Income tax: capital gains: application of subsections 160M(6) and 160M(7) to restrictive covenants and trade ties (As at 4 August 1994). [online] Available at: https://law.ato.gov.au/atolaw/view.htm?docid=DTR/TR94D33/NAT/ATO/00001 [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016]. Levi, S., Segal, B. and Segal, D., 2015. Do fiduciary duties to creditors reduce debt-covenant avoidance?. Long, B., Campbell, J. and Kelshaw, C., 2016. The justice lens on taxation policy in Australia.St Mark's Review, (235), p.94. Miller, A. and Oats, L., 2016.Principles of international taxation. Bloomsbury Publishing. Platikanova, P., 2015. Debt Maturity and Tax Avoidance.European Accounting Review, pp.1-28. Santhanam, R., 2016. 51_Salaries and Income-Tax. Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C. and Pinto, D., 2016.Australian Taxation Law 2016. Oxford University Press.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Use And Origin Of Ricin Biology Essay Example For Students

Use And Origin Of Ricin Biology Essay Ricin is a protein extracted from the seeds of the cas ­tor bean works ( Ricinus communis ) . Ricin is a lectin and a member of a group of ribosome-inactivat ­ing proteins like abrin ( from the seeds of the rosary pea, Abrus precatorius ) , that prevent synthesis of protein in eucaryotic ribosomes. Ricin is one of the most toxic substances and as such was one time known to be a chemical arm ( Agent W ) but is now capable to the Chemical Weapons Convention. However, ricin has been used as a toxicant for condemnable and terrorist intents. We will write a custom essay on Use And Origin Of Ricin Biology specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Ricin is an highly toxic toxicant, and therefore can kill even if applied in a little sum. Therefore, the debut of rapid, extremely sensitive chemical and biological/immunological analytical methods capable of observing the toxin at or below ng/ml degree is of critical importance ( see, for illustration, Kalb and Barr, 2009 ; Lubelli et al. , 2006 ; Uzawa et al. , 2008 ) . In instances where Castor beans or petroleum ricin readyings are the perchance unsafe toxicants, ricinine can besides function as a biomarker ( see, for illustration, Mouser et al. , 2007 ) . The chemical is peculiarly lifelessly because it can be inhaled, ingested, or swallowed and is rapidly broken down in the organic structure and is virtually undetectable. There is presently no counterpoison to ricin, although a prospective vaccinum has been developed that has been successfully tested in mice. Ricin is a powerful protein cytotoxin derived from the beans of the Castor works. Castor beans are ubiquitous worldwide, and the toxin is reasonably easy to pull out ; hence, ricin is widely available. Ricin s significance as a possible BW toxin relates in portion to its broad handiness. Outline1 HOW IT IS OBTAINED2 B. DESCRIPTION OF THE AGENT3 Identity and Physicochemical Properties4 Stability5 Use6 Mode of action7 Toxicity8 Toxicity to Laboratory Animals9 Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Ricin10 Speciess, sex11 Path HOW IT IS OBTAINED Ricin toxin, found in the bean of the Castor works, Ricinis communis, is one of the most toxic and easy produced works toxins. The bush like cosmetic Castor works, Ricinus communis ( Euphorbiaceae ) , originated in Africa and Asia, and has been cultivated and distributed throughout the universe. The one-year production of Castor oil seed exceeds over 1 million metric metric tons ( Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009 ) . Ricin is a by-product of Castor oil production: when Castor beans are crushed, they form a mush from which Castor oil is extracted, and ricin is what remains. The waste mash from this procedure is 3-5 % ricin by weight. The seeds of the works have three chief components: oil, Castor oil, which is the acylglycerol of ricinoleic acid ; a mildly toxic alkaloid ricinine and several isoforms of a extremely toxicant glycoprotein ricin present up to 5 % in the seeds. Although adaptable to a broad temperature scope, it fails to defy to subfreezing temperatures and withstand best in elevated year-around temperatures. Brazil, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, and Thailand are the states which commercially cultivate most of the seeds. Castor oil is found in many normally used substances such as pigments, varnishes, and lubricating oils, and is besides used as a cathartic. After oil isolation, the staying seed bar may be detoxified by heat intervention and used as an carnal provender addendum. The seed hulls are similar to barnyard manure in their fertiliser value. The toxicity of Castor beans has been known since antediluvian times and more than 750 instances of poisoning in worlds have been described. Although ricin s deadly toxicity is about 1,000-fold less than that of botulinus toxin, ricin may hold significance as a biological arm because of its heat stableness and world-wide handiness, in monolithic measures, as a byproduct of Castor oil product ion. .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 , .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .postImageUrl , .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 , .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:hover , .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:visited , .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:active { border:0!important; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:active , .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981 .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u04c99fb43adfa81d4afd52ac19eb6981:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Romeo and Juliet/new ending EssayB. DESCRIPTION OF THE AGENT Identity and Physicochemical Properties Ricin is a 66-kilodalton ( kd ) globular protein that makes up 1 % to 5 % by weight of the bean of the Castor works, Ricinis communis. The CAS Registry Number of ricin is . In a pure province, ricin is a white crystalline pulverization. It is a water-soluble glycoprotein dwelling of two polypeptides, termed A and B ironss, which are linked by a disulfide bond ( ASSB ) . The amino acerb sequence of ricin ( or ricin D as the toxic fraction from the beans is called ) was resolute by Funatsu et Al. ( 1978, 1979 ) . The A concatenation contains 265 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 32 kDa ; its sugar content is 2.6 % . The isoelectric point of the A concatenation is 7.34. The B concatenation of 260 aminic acids and four internal disulfide bonds has a molecular weight of 34 kDa and its sugar content is 6.4 % . The A concatenation has enzymatic belongingss ( ribosomal RNA N-glycosidase, EC 3.2.2.22 ) responsible for the toxicity of ricin, while the B concatenation is a lectin binding to galactose-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of mark cell constituents. The usage of X-ray crystallography surveies was used to work out the 3-dimensional construction of ricin ( reviewed by Lord et al. , 1994 ) . The physicochemical and photochemical belongingss of ricin have late been assessed ( Gaigalas et al. , 2007 ) . Stability Because the husk left over from Castor oil processing can be used to feed cowss, a great trade of attempt was dedicated to its detoxification ( Balint, 1974 ; European Food Safety Authority, 2008 ) . High-temperature denaturing ( A ; gt ; 80 A ; deg ; C for 1 H ) and chemical methods ( oxidization with K permanganate, H peroxide, I, etc. ) were put frontward to destruct the toxin ( see, for illustration, Barnes et al. , 2009 ) . In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, which reduces the disulfide bond fall ining the A and B ironss, the toxicity of ricin is lost ; remotion of 2-mercaptoethanol, nevertheless, allows the reconstitution and reactivation of the toxin. Ricin is degraded by papain but merely easy by trypsin. The destiny of ricin in the organic structure is incompletely understood. Use The toxin-rich husk by-product of Castor oil industry has been used to kill mice and moles. Conjugate solutions of ricin and cell-specific antibodies are experimental antineoplastic immunochemotherapeutic agents ( Sandvig and new wave Deurs, 2005 ; Stirpe et al. , 1992 ) . Recently, transgenic rice and maize engineered to bring forth a merger protein consisting the Cry1Ac endotoxin of Bt and the ricin B lectin fractional monetary unit have proved to be insecticidal to insects that are otherwise able to digest Cry toxins ( Mehlo et al. , 2005 ) . Mode of action Once it was thought that the toxic action of ricin readyings in mammals is due to its haemagglutinating consequence, but this activity was shown to be associated with the structurally similar, but atoxic agglutinins present in the Castor bean. It is now good established that ricin inhibits protein synthesis in eucaryotic systems by catalytically demobilizing the 60S fractional monetary unit involved in the interlingual rendition procedure. The structural facets of biochemical interaction of ricin and other ribosome-inactivating protein ( RIP ) toxins from workss and Fungis were wholly assessed ( Kozlov et al. , 2006 ; Stirpe and Battelli, 2006 ) . Briefly, the B concatenation binds to galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids in eucaryotic cells. The binding to come up receptors can be inhibited by brain sugar or lactose in vitro. It appears that both ironss facilitate the incursion by endocytosis of the toxin into the cell. The B concatenation, nevertheless, aids the toxin in translocating to endosomal marks every bit good. Once in the cytosol, the A concatenation cleaves a individual A base from the 28S ribosomal ( Ribonucleic acid ) RNA within the 60S ribosomal fractional monetary unit, rendering it unable to adhere the elongation factor 2 which accordingly leads to an apprehension of protein synthesis. A individual A concatenation molecule can demobilize 1500 ribosomes per minute and kill the cell. In add-on to suppressing protein synthesis, ricin was shown to arouse programmed cell death, cause oxidative emphasis, release proinflammatory cytokines, modify cell membrane construction and map, and impair atomic DNA ( reviewed by Stirpe and Battelli, 2006 ) . Lipase activity of ricin was besides clearly shown ( Morlon-Guyot et al. , 2003 ) . .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff , .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .postImageUrl , .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff , .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:hover , .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:visited , .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:active { border:0!important; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:active , .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u22ee79deb39827348a5e427512cef0ff:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Conflict theory1 EssayToxicity Toxicity to Laboratory Animals Although the manner of action of ricin at the molecular degree is known, the mechanisms responsible for the clinical and deadly effects of the toxin are still inadequately understood. Representative carnal toxicity informations for ricin administered by different paths are shown in Table 1. The fluctuations in the acute toxicity values reported in the literature are chiefly due to mixture of the readyings used in the trials ( reviewed by Balint, 1974 ) . The symptoms of ricin poisoning manifest easy, normally 12 hour after disposal, and include instead sudden effusions of paroxysms and opisthotonos, followed by palsy of the respiratory centre, finally taking to decease. Causeless toxic condition is normally due to consumption of Castor beans ( for recent illustrations, see Aslani et al. , 2007 ; Soto-Blanco et al. , 2002 ) . Laboratory trials with seeds showed biddy to be the most immune species ( the lethal dosage was 14 g/kg ) ; sheep and Equus caballus were more sensitive ( deadly doses were 1.25 and 0.10 g/kg, severally ) . The toxin is pyrogenous in mammals ( Balint, 1993 ) . In the serum of animate beings treated with ricin, antibodies specific to ricin hold repeatedly been detected ( see, for illustration, Griffiths et al. , 2007 ) . Ricin is extremely toxic upon injection and inspiration. Using transmittal negatron microscopy, Brown and White ( 1997 ) ( see besides Griffiths et al. , 1995b, 2007 ) examined the histopathological alterations in the lungs of rats upon ricin inspiration. The animate beings were exposed to an LCt30 ( the concentration in air that killed 30 % of the open animate beings ) of 11.21 mg/min/m3 dosage of the toxin. Necrotic alterations were evident in the capillary endothelium and type I epithelial cells, accompanied by intraalveolar hydrops 12-15 H after exposure. Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Ricin Speciess, sex Path LD50 ( ?g/kg ) Minimal lethal dosage ( ?g/kg )

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Free Essays on King Vs. Socrates

The relationship between Socrates and Martin Luther King The similarities between Martin Luther King and Socrates are so close that it’s hard to imagine that either could have come up with their ideas alone. I believe as King quoted Socrates with, â€Å"†¦it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal†¦ to the majestic heights of understanding,† King stemmed his beliefs and strong arguments from ideas of fellow extremists. When reading King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail the first thing that came to mind was how closely related Socrates and King’s argument are about â€Å"the willingness of accepting the penalty by staying in jail to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice,† as quoted by King. Is not the above quote what was the whole basis of Socrates argument in Plato’s Crito? Of course it was, the whole reason King couldn’t decide to escape from jail is because, â€Å"I would rather die having spoken after my manner than speak in your manner and live.† Socrates explains that â€Å"it is not possible that a bad man should injure someone better than himself.† While King says something of similar meaning with, â€Å"they have gone with the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant.† Socrates speaks of living a life in jail for what he believes of expanding the minds of Athenians to treasure â€Å" the improvemen t of the soul† while King’s beliefs reflect the same idea with, â€Å"the willingness to go to jail for conscience’s sake.† Would Socrates agree with King’s arguments? Without a doubt I would say Socrates would definitely understand King’s points and completely understand the need for direct and strong measures taken to stand for what the African Americans believe they needed to do for a â€Å"just cause.†... Free Essays on King Vs. Socrates Free Essays on King Vs. Socrates The relationship between Socrates and Martin Luther King The similarities between Martin Luther King and Socrates are so close that it’s hard to imagine that either could have come up with their ideas alone. I believe as King quoted Socrates with, â€Å"†¦it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal†¦ to the majestic heights of understanding,† King stemmed his beliefs and strong arguments from ideas of fellow extremists. When reading King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail the first thing that came to mind was how closely related Socrates and King’s argument are about â€Å"the willingness of accepting the penalty by staying in jail to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice,† as quoted by King. Is not the above quote what was the whole basis of Socrates argument in Plato’s Crito? Of course it was, the whole reason King couldn’t decide to escape from jail is because, â€Å"I would rather die having spoken after my manner than speak in your manner and live.† Socrates explains that â€Å"it is not possible that a bad man should injure someone better than himself.† While King says something of similar meaning with, â€Å"they have gone with the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant.† Socrates speaks of living a life in jail for what he believes of expanding the minds of Athenians to treasure â€Å" the improvemen t of the soul† while King’s beliefs reflect the same idea with, â€Å"the willingness to go to jail for conscience’s sake.† Would Socrates agree with King’s arguments? Without a doubt I would say Socrates would definitely understand King’s points and completely understand the need for direct and strong measures taken to stand for what the African Americans believe they needed to do for a â€Å"just cause.†...